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干细胞方面的发现或助于新疗法的研究

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发表于 2013-5-11 17:58 |显示全部帖子
2013年5月2日,科学家们有了一个关于胚胎干细胞的特性如何被控制的基础性发现。
# R0 q! W& l: u6 g这项侧重于对干细胞的更新和增殖过程的研究,可以有助于那些用于寻找新的治疗方法的研究。 ) y4 R, \3 r# ~3 o" ^4 V
科学家们发现了一种蛋白,是位于基因上的开关,在自然产生的蛋白质水平下降时,能够允许胚胎干细胞自我更新和更好的工作。
) y; H+ w! p9 ]5 k& B* I以前认为,一旦这种蛋白质的水平——称为Oct 4的蛋白——一旦减少,产生新的干细胞的数量的能力也将下降。
& H/ q. J" o5 q# M1 Z2 t$ k这项发现预示着那些为寻找治疗条件的干细胞的研究,包括帕金森,运动神经元,肝脏和心脏疾病等的相关疾病。) d/ Q( J% u7 q9 R" k2 r
在胚胎发育过程中,这些细胞具有转变成为身体中任何类型的细胞能力——被称为多能干细胞——可以以对数方式自我更新或分化成身体不同部位的细胞,例如皮肤或肝脏。
( P, n& S6 l2 `' B: S这种多能干细胞数量增加的需求是非常重要的,他们才可以有分化成其他类型细胞的充足的供应。- I0 D0 q; ~' l
在爱丁堡大学医学再生医学中心研究委员的科学家们发现,当Oct 4水平较低时,蛋白质和在细胞中的DNA的关键部分结合更为紧密。! r+ L6 h# g! J& u& O# n0 ?
Oct 4对这段DNA的强烈的吸引力,能够有效的切换的关键基因,从而导致多能干细胞更新。9 I. q0 k0 [5 e: N3 F: f* Y( }
这些结果可以帮助实验室改进现有的培养干细胞的方式,提供一个为干细胞所需要的更好的分化、增殖或者是转化为其他不同类型的细胞的过程的了解) c) K( G& W4 ^! R7 R! V
这项发表在干细胞杂志上的研究,是由医学研究委员会、威康信托基金会、生物技术和生物科学研究委员会和人类前沿科学计划支持的。
8 j  W' m$ W8 t领导这项研究的伊恩教授的研究室,大学的再生医学中心,说:“我们的发现完全是一个意外,因为我们认为当这个关键蛋白水平降低了的时候,多能干细胞产生的数量也将减少。相反,结果显示在Oct 4水平降低时,平衡便倾向于支持干细胞的自我更新和分化。”6 J' O7 Z) ?8 y' O, a) J7 C
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附原文:
% L4 u& t: S: @Stem Cell Discovery Could Aid Research Into New Treatments" s; E* A0 @5 f' {9 S  w! y
May 2, 2013 — Scientists have made a fundamental discovery about how the properties of embryonic stem cells are controlled.6 Y$ z: J# V: D7 j. V5 g
The study, which focuses on the process by which these cells renew and increase in number, could help research to find new treatments.
7 [, D; w4 s7 P1 oResearchers have found that a protein, which switches on genes to allow embryonic stem cells to self-renew, works better when the natural occurring level of the protein is reduced.
+ V) x" {5 j: v/ C+ B- RIt was previously thought that once levels of this protein -- called Oct 4 -- were reduced the numbers of new stem cells being produced would also fall.2 ~: e5 {5 O/ x: D
The finding will inform stem cell research, which is looking to find treatments for conditions including Parkinson's, motor neuron, liver and heart disease.
0 E6 Y, @8 Z. q* e- n" A# lDuring embryonic development, cells that have the capacity to become any cell type in the body -- called pluripotent stem cells -- can either renew themselves by multiplying in number or differentiate to become cells found in different parts of the body, for instance skin or liver.
5 T+ }- ^7 m/ [" [- C& w! ^This need for pluripotent cells to increase in number is important so that there is a sufficient supply of them to be differentiated into other cell types.- K2 T) [; C* b3 k0 b; t) f# W
Scientists at the Medical Research Council Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh found that when there were lower levels of Oct 4, the protein bound much more tightly to key parts of DNA in cells.2 j5 {# G# B. P4 ~
The strong attraction of Oct 4 to these sections of DNA enabled the efficient switching on of key genes that caused pluripotent stem cells to renew.
( Q& L& J: P& c7 n  {* hThe findings could help to improve the way in which stem cells are cultured in the laboratory, providing a better understanding of the processes needed for cells to divide and multiply or to generate different cell types.
" `! h5 h) m0 j" ^' J0 EThe study, published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, was funded by the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and the Human Frontier Science Programme
1 b! s, b' W! K6 dProfessor Ian Chambers, of the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University, who led the study, said: "What we found was a complete surprise, as we thought that when levels of this key protein were reduced the numbers of pluripotent stem cells being generated would also fall. Instead, it appears that when the levels of Oct 4 are lower, the balance is tipped in favour of self-renewal over stem cell differentiation."
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本文源自:http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130502131903.htm
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金话筒 优秀会员

发表于 2013-5-16 05:13 |显示全部帖子
怎么没人评述呢?很好的思想和文章,我现在发现,国内的研究人员和研究生,都喜欢看,但不喜欢说,有的是担心自己的想法被别人偷去了,也有的人根本没有想法。想法都是在不断的研讨中产生的,如果不去想,永远也产生不了好的idea,永远只能跟在别人后面去做,做不出好的东西来。唉!
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